Mac terminal commands list pdf

Advanced CLIs will validate, interpret and parameter-expand the command line before executing the specified command, and optionally capture or redirect its output. Unlike a button or menu item in a GUI, a command line is typically self-documenting, stating exactly what the user wants done. In addition, command lines usually include many defaults that can be changed to customize the results. These advantages mean that a user must figure out a complex command or series of commands only once, because they can be saved, to be used again. This will overwrite the file.

Another redirection operator is the vertical bar , which creates a pipeline where the output of one command becomes the input to the next command. One can modify the set of available commands by modifying which paths appear in the PATH environment variable. Under Unix, commands also need be marked as executable files. The directories in the path variable are searched in the order they are given.

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By re-ordering the path, one can run e. EXE, when the default is the opposite. Renaming of the executables also works: people often rename their favourite editor to EDIT, for example. The command line allows one to restrict available commands, such as access to advanced internal commands. The Windows CMD.

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EXE does this. Often, shareware programs will limit the range of commands, including printing a command 'your administrator has disabled running batch files' from the prompt. Some CLIs, such as those in network routers , have a hierarchy of modes , with a different set of commands supported in each mode. The set of commands are grouped by association with security, system, interface, etc. In these systems the user might traverse through a series of sub-modes. For example, if the CLI had two modes called interface and system , the user might use the command interface to enter the interface mode.

At this point, commands from the system mode may not be accessible until the user exits the interface mode and enters the system mode. A command prompt or just prompt is a sequence of one or more characters used in a command-line interface to indicate readiness to accept commands. It literally prompts the user to take action.

End-users can often modify prompts. Depending on the environment, they may include colors, special characters, and other elements like variables and functions for the current time, user, shell number or working directory in order, for instance, to make the prompt more informative or visually pleasing, to distinguish sessions on various machines, or to indicate the current level of nesting of commands. On some systems, special tokens in the definition of the prompt can be used to cause external programs to be called by the command-line interpreter while displaying the prompt.

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In the bash shell, a prompt of the form:. It is not a real prompt in that the location of text entry does not change.

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It is used to display information on the same line as the prompt, but right-justified. A command-line argument or parameter is an item of information provided to a program when it is started. A program can have many command-line arguments that identify sources or destinations of information, or that alter the operation of the program.

When a command processor is active a program is typically invoked by typing its name followed by command-line arguments if any. For example, in Unix and Unix-like environments, an example of a command-line argument is:. Other languages, such as Python , expose these arguments as global variables. In Unix-like operating systems , a single hyphen used in place of a file name is a special value specifying that a program should handle data coming from the standard input or send data to the standard output.

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A command-line option or simply option also known as a flag or switch modifies the operation of a command; the effect is determined by the command's program. Options follow the command name on the command line, separated by spaces. The format of options varies widely between operating systems. In most cases the syntax is by convention rather than an operating system requirement; the entire command line is simply a string passed to a program, which can process it in any way the programmer wants, so long as the interpreter can tell where the command name ends and its arguments and options begin.

A few representative samples of command-line options, all relating to listing files in a directory, to illustrate some conventions:. In Multics , command-line options and subsystem keywords may be abbreviated. In some other systems abbreviations are automatic, such as permitting enough of the first characters of a command name to uniquely identify it such as SU as an abbreviation for SUPERUSER while others may have some specific abbreviations pre-programmed e.

COM or user-defined via batch scripts and aliases e. EXE or internal their commands may use different syntax within the same operating system. For example:. Two hyphen-minus characters without following letters -- may indicate that the remaining arguments should not be treated as options, which is useful for example if a file name itself begins with a hyphen, or if further arguments are meant for an inner command e. Double hyphen-minuses are also sometimes used to prefix "long options" where more descriptive option names are used. This is a common feature of GNU software. The getopt function and program, and the getopts command are usually used for parsing command-line options.

Unix command names, arguments and options are case-sensitive except in a few examples, mainly where popular commands from other operating systems have been ported to Unix. Conversational Monitor System CMS uses a single left parenthesis to separate options at the end of the command from the other arguments. One of the criticisms of a CLI is the lack of cues to the user as to the available actions.

However, entering a program name without parameters in the hope that it will display usage help can be hazardous, as programs and scripts for which command line arguments are optional will execute without further notice. Although desirable at least for the help parameter, programs may not support all option lead-in characters exemplified above.

So, if a program is not hardwired to support them all, a user may need to know the current setting even to be able to reliably request help. In some cases, different levels of help can be selected for a program. In a similar fashion to the help parameter, but much less common, some programs provide additional information about themselves like mode, status, version, author, license or contact information when invoked with an "about" parameter like -! Since the?

If more detailed help is necessary than provided by a program's built-in internal help, many systems support a dedicated external " help command " command or similar , which accepts a command name as calling parameter and will invoke an external help system. COM also accept a? Besides their purpose as quick help reference this can be used in batchjobs to query the facilities of the underlying command-line processor.

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Built-in usage help and man pages commonly employ a small syntax to describe the valid command form: [19] [20] [21] [nb 2]. Notice that these characters have different meanings than when used directly in the shell. Angle brackets may be omitted when confusing the parameter name with a literal string is not likely. In many areas of computing, but particularly in the command line, the space character can cause problems as it has two distinct and incompatible functions: as part of a command or parameter, or as a parameter or name separator.

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For example. Unix -based operating systems minimize the use of embedded spaces to minimize the need for quotes.

50+ Mac Terminal Commands

In Microsoft Windows , one often has to use quotes because embedded spaces such as in directory names are common. Although most users think of the shell as an interactive command interpreter, it is really a programming language in which each statement runs a command. Because it must satisfy both the interactive and programming aspects of command execution, it is a strange language, shaped as much by history as by design. The term command-line interpreter CLI is applied to computer programs designed to interpret a sequence of lines of text which may be entered by a user, read from a file or another kind of data stream. The context of interpretation is usually one of a given operating system or programming language. Command-line interpreters allow users to issue various commands in a very efficient and often terse way. Moves from ANY directory into the muondata. If you add -al after ls it will give more details for each file.

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Such as, size, permissions, owners, dates etc. If you see such a long list of files that they scroll off the terminal screen, one way to solve the problem is to use:. You may move through the file using page up, page down, home and end keys. When done with less you use the q key to get back to the main terminal.